Why an encyclopedia? The original Greek word means ‘the circle of arts and sciences essential for a liberal education’, and such a book was intended to embrace all knowledge. That was the aim of the famous Encyclopedie produced by Diderot and d’Alembert in the middle of the 18th century, which contributed so much to what has been called the Enlightenment.
It is recorded that after all the authors had corrected the proofs of their contributions, the printer secretly cut out whatever he thought might give offence to the king, mutilated most of the best articles and burnt the manuscripts! Later, and less controversially, the word ‘encyclopedia’ came to be used for an exhaustive repertory of information on some particular department of knowledge. It is in this class that the present work falls.
In recent years the scope of Human Nutrition as a scientific discipline has expanded enormously. I used to
think of it as an applied subject, relying on the basic sciences of physiology and biochemistry in much the same way that engineering relies on physics. That traditional relationship remains and is fundamental, but the field is now much wider. At one end of the spectrum epidemiological studies and the techniques on which they depend have played a major part in establishing the relationships between diet, nutritional status and health, and there is greater recognition of the importance of social factors. At the other end of the spectrum we are becoming increasingly aware of the genetic determinants of ways in which the body handles food and is able to resist adverse influences of the environment.