ABC of Nutrition, Fourth Edition

This well established ABC has been updated with new charts, illustrations and guidelines on aspects of nutrition which affect heart disease, blood pressure, chronic diseases such as diabetes and some types of cancer. The book also contains the most current nutritional recommendations for pregnancy and infant feeding as well as advice for children and adults young and old. With chapters covering nutritional deficiencies in both developing and affluent countries as well as eating disorders and obesity, this latest edition has worldwide relevance.

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Advanced Nutrition Micronutrients

In the first volume of this two-volume book, Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients, the needs for the macronutrients were discussed. The absorption, metabolism, excretion, and function of the various sources of energy as well as detailed discussions of the need for water and energy balance were presented. The needs for the micronutrients, as well as explanations of how these nutrients function in the body, were deferred to this, the second volume. While most vitamins function at the metabolic level, the discoveries of how some of the vitamins and minerals work at the genomic level are quite exciting. Finally, we have an understanding of the pathophysiology of the plethora of diseases labeled nutrient deficiency disorders. Beriberi,
pellagra, anemia, scurvy, embryonic and fetal malformation, rickets, osteoporosis, and a number of subtle (and not so subtle) disorders are finally connected to specific nutrients such that we can now understand why certain symptoms develop when an inadequate intake occurs. We have also come to understand, in part, the genetic diversity of the many species that require these nutrients. Nutrient-gene interactions as well as nutrient-nutrient and nutrient-drug interactions have become major research endeavors by nutrition scientists throughout the world. These scientists are truly
hybrids in the world of science. They must have expertise in nutrition, biochemistry, physiology, and genetics, and if they are interested in human nutrition they must also understand human social systems and human medicine or have a physician collaborator.
Nutrition science is not as simple as finding a nutrient and determining its function. Today’s science requires a far more complicated approach. The techniques of yesteryear are no longer adequate by themselves. The techniques of other disciplines must be brought to bear as well. The student will make new discoveries by studying the present database and finding the gaps in our knowledge. Nowhere is this as apparent as in the study of the micronutrients. While the animal of primary interest is the human, most research uses animals of other species because of the need to make organ, cell, and subcell measurements that are impossible to perform in the human. For this reason, the scientist needs to be all-inclusive in the study of nutrient needs. Interspecies comparisons provide ample opportunities to learn how specific nutrients function and interact with other nutrients. After all, nutrition is a composite science requiring skills of integration and comprehension of the whole living system.

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Pedoman Proses Asuhan Gizi Terstandar (PAGT)

Berisi tentang,; model dan asuhan gizi standar,kewenangan tenaga gizi dalam proses asuhan gizi, pengawasan dan pengendalian mutu asuhan gizi

Gizi merupakan faktor penting karena secara langsung berpengaruh terhadap kualitas Sumber Daya Manusia (SDM), oleh karena itu perlu pelayanan gizi yang berkualitas pada individu dan masyarakat. Pelayanan gizi merupakan salah satu sub-sistem dalam pelayanan kesehatan paripurna, yang berfokus kepada keamanan pasien. Dengan demikian pelayanan gizi wajib mengacu kepada standar yang berlaku. Mengingat masih dijumpai kejadian malnutrisi di rumah sakit dan fasilitas pelayanan kesehatan lainnya, maka perlu upaya pendekatan yang lebih strategis. Asupan zat gizi yang tidak sesuai kebutuhan sangat berkaitan dengan peningkatan risiko penyakit maupun komplikasinya. Selain itu terdapat kecenderungan peningkatan kasus yang terkait gizi baik, pada individu maupun kelompok. Hal ini memerlukan asuhan gizi yang bermutu guna mempertahankan status gizi yang optimal dan untuk mempercepat penyembuhan.

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Pedoman PGRS (Pelayanan Gizi Rumah Sakit)

Dalam melaksanakan pelayanan gizi di rumah sakit diperlukan sumber daya manusia yang kompoten, sarana dan prasarana yang memadai, agar pelayanan gizi yang di laksanakan memenuhi standar yang telah di tetapkan. Pelayanan gizi merupakan bagian integral dari pelayanan kesehatan di rumah sakit, yang saling menunjang dan tidak dipisahkan dengan pelayanan. Kesehatan dan gizi merupakan faktor penting karena secara langsung berpengaruh terhadap kualitas SDM di suatu negara, yang digambarkan melalui pertumbuhan ekonomi, umur harapan hidup dan tingkat pendidikan. Tingkat pendidikan yang tinggi hanya dapat dicapai oleh orang yang sehat dan berstatus gizi baik. Masalah gizi klinis adalah masalah gizi yang ditinjau secara individual mengenai apa yang terjadi dalam tubuh seseorang, yang seharusnya ditanggulangi secara individu. Demikian pula masalah gizi pada berbagai keadaan sakit yang secara langsung ataupun tidak langsung mempengaruhi proses penyembuhan, harus diperhatikan secara individual. Adanya kecendrungan peningkatan kasus penyakit yang terkait dengan nutrition related disease pada semua kelompok rentan
dari ibu hamil, bayi, anak, remaja, dewasa dan usia lanjut, semakin dirasakan perlunya penanganan khusus. Semua ini memerlukan pelayanan gizi yang bermutu untuk mempertahankan status gizi yang optimal, sehingga tidak terjadi kurang gizi dan untuk mempercepat penyembuhan

Enteral Nutrition in the Critically Ill Patient

Clinical factors, such as premorbid nutritional status and severity of illness, determine the overall efficacy of nutritional support. Malnutrition may be defined as “a disorder of body composition in which macronutrient and/or micronutrient deficiencies occur when nutrient intake is less than required.”1 Malnutrition leads to reduced organ function, abnormal laboratory chemistry values, and poorer clinical outcome. For all hospitalized patients, the reported prevalence of malnutrition is as high as 50%. Although difficult to quantify, the incidence in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is closer to 5%. A malnourished patient is more likely to have infectious morbidity, a prolonged hospital stay, and increased mortality.2 However, not all patients in the ICU need nutritional support, and disease and nutrition exhibit complex interactions. In critical illness, malnutrition results from abnormal nutrient processing and not starvation. Each individual patient should receive a nutritional formula specific to their disease process. Keeping this in mind, it is important to provide early nutritional support during critical illness.

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CRC Handbook of : Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition, 3dr Edition

Dietary fiber is widely recognized as an essential element of good nutrition. In fact, research on the use of fiber in food science and medicine is being conducted at an incredible pace. CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition, Third Edition explores the chemistry, analytical methodologies, physiological and biochemical aspects, clinical and epidemiological studies, and consumption patterns of dietary fiber.

Featuring new chapters and tables, in addition to updated sections, the third edition of this popular book includes important information that has become available since the publication of the second edition.

What’s new in the Third Edition?

o Definitions and consumption of dietary fiber from 1992-2000
o A new chapter on the physical chemistry of dietary fiber
o Updated dietary fiber values for common foods
o New table: Tartaric Acid Content of Foods
o Coverage of non-plant food fibers, such as chitin and chitosan
o An entire section devoted to the effect of whole grains, cereal fiber, and phytic acid on health
o Discussion of the interaction of fiber and phytochemicals

Quickly retrieve and understand current data with the book’s concise, easy-to-read tables and definitions. Covering all aspects of dietary fiber, including chemistry and definitions, analytical procedures, and basic physiological functions, the CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition provides you with a unique collection of dietary fiber information unlike that found in any other book.

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Your Body, How It Works : Digestion and Nutrition

The human body is an incredibly complex and amazing structure. At best, it is a source of strength, beauty, and wonder. We can compare the healthy body to a well-designed machine whose parts work smoothly together. We can also compare it to a symphony orchestra in which each instrument has a different part to play. When all of the musicians play together, they produce beautiful music. From a purely physical standpoint, our bodies are made mainly of water. We are also made of many minerals, including calcium, phosphorous, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, and iron. In order of size, the elements of the body are organized into cells, tissues, and organs. Related organs are combined into systems, including the musculoskeletal, cardio-vascular, nervous, respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and reproductive systems.

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Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, Second Edition

This Second Edition is a thorough revision and 20% expansion of the 1998 release, reflecting the continuing scientific advances in the field of human nutrition. Now a four-volume set, nearly 300 articles with concise, up-to-date information are complemented by an award-winning indexing system. Included is expanded coverage of epidemiology of diet-related diseases, functional foods, food safety, clinical nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders. Virtually everyone will find the Encyclopedia of Human Nutritionan easy-to-use resource making it an ideal reference choice for both the professional and the non-professional alike.

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ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Intensive care

Enteral nutrition (EN) via tube feeding is, today, the preferred way of feeding the critically ill patient and an important means of counteracting for the
catabolic state induced by severe diseases. These guidelines are intended to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of EN in patients who have a complicated course during their ICU stay, focusing particularly on those who develop a severe inflammatory response, i.e. patients who have failure of at least one organ during their ICU stay. These guidelines were developed by an interdisciplinary expert group in accordance with officially accepted standards and are based on all relevant publica-tions since 1985. They were discussed and accepted in a consensus conference. EN should be given to all ICU patients who are not expected to be taking a full oral diet within three days. It should have begun during the first 24 h using a standard high-protein formula. During the acute and initial phases of critical illness an exogenous energy supply in excess of 20–25 kcal/kg BW/day should be avoided, whereas, during recovery, the aim should be to provide values of 25–30 total kcal/ kg BW/day. Supplementary parenteral nutrition remains a reserve tool and should be given only to those patients who do not reach their target nutrient intake on EN
alone. There is no general indication for immune-modulating formulae in patients with severe illness or sepsis and an APACHE II Score 415. Glutamine should be supplemented in patients suffering from burns or trauma.

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Essentials of Food Science, Third Edition

Knowledge of food science is applicable to all persons, in diverse college majors. This text is designed with a user-friendly approach to Food Science for the non-major.

This text reviews an Introduction to Food Components – quality and water. Next it addresses carbohydrates – including starches, pectins and gums, breads and pasta, vegetables and fruits. Then proteins – meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, milk and milk products are presented. Following proteins are fats and emulsions. Then sugars and sweeteners, and baked products, the latter of which builds upon basic food component knowledge.

Various aspects of Food Production are examined, including food safety, preservation and processing, food additives and packaging. Government regulation and labeling complete the chapter information.

New in this edition are “Culinary Alerts!” scattered throughout chapters. Their inclusion allow the reader to more easily apply text information to cooking applications. Also new are the Appendices, which cover the following:

  • Biotechnology. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’s)
  • Functional foods
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Phytochemicals
  • Medical foods
  • USDA Food Pyramid
  • Food Label Heath Claims
  • Research Chefs Association – certification as a culinary scientist and more

Using a multidisciplinary approach, Essentials of Food Science, Third Edition combines food chemistry, food technology, and food preparation applications into one single source of information.

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